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18.008 exchange rate mechanisms in Europe; currencies

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European countries pegged their currencies in 1979 (EMS, EMS wiki, ERM, (E)ERMwiki ECU pdf). This led to some currencies becoming too weak and targets for shorting attacks in the 90’s by f.ex Soros.
During the attacks England and Sweden left EMS in an emergency and pound and Swedish krona were made to float. The euro crisis starting in 2009 and the alleged Corona crisis in 2020 are examples of the same problem, now within the euro area.

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Det svenska samhället har slagits sönder för att man skall försöka klämma in det under globaliseringen, närmast EU. Det kommer bara att bli värre för oss.

Det är mycket svårt att vända.

Men globalisterna bara stävar efter makt. De har ingen plan. Det enda de kan är att skapa kaos och köpa politiker.

Man skrattar när man läser hur de peggade Europas valutor på 80-90-talen.

A central rate expressed in ECUs is fixed for each currency in the EMS. These ECU-related central rates are used to establish a grid of bilateral exchange rates. Fluctuation margins of 2.25% (6% for the Italian lira) are allowed on either side of the bilateral exchange rates. Participation in the EMS exchange-rate mechanism means that each currency s ECU-related central rate is dependent on the rates of the other countries. The ECU-related central rates of two currencies may change even if their bilateral exchange rates are not affected when an adjustment is made within the EMS. Through the ECU, any adjustment to a central rate has therefore become a matter of common interest to all participating Member States which cannot be decided by one government alone. However, when central rates are adjusted the practice is for the margins of revaluation or devaluation to be negotiated on the basis of the bilateral exchange rates and for the new ECU-related central rates to be calculated only as a second step. (b) Divergence indicator An economic and monetary policy task has been allotted to the ECU with its second function as the basis for the divergence indicator. This indicator is to act as a sort of early-warning system, identifying any currency that diverges from the average for the other currencies, Le. the ECU, before the gap grows too large. W

rates of the member countries could fluctuate. The bands of fluctuation were characterized by a set of adjustable bilateral central parities and margins that defined the bandwidth of permissible fluctuations. This set of parities was called a parity grid as it defined parities for all combinations of the ECU constituent currencies. The borders of the fluctuation bands were described by the upper intervention point and lower intervention point. Typically, the bandwidths were 2.25% to each side, with a wider margin for the Italian Lira. After a currency crisis in 1993, the bands were widened to 15% on each side, but in practice the fluctuations were kept within a narrow band. When a market exchange rate reached either of these intervention points, the central banks were compelled to support these rates indefinitely through open market operations (buying of weakened currency or selling of a strengthened currency). Some countries (notably Britain) initially did not participate

etc etc
the snake bands med 2.25%
etc

Valutorna skulle “slingra sig” fram i band av 2.25%. Nationalbankerna var tvingade att stödköpa utan gräns.

En idiot kan förstå att det där aldrig skulle fungera.

Soros kraschade hela systemet och fick 10 miljoner i fickan bara när han knäckte Bank of England.

Soros sänkte de svenska hushållens köpkraft under en 10-årsperiod.

Men gobalisterna ger sig aldrig. Så då skapade de euron vilket har givit oss konstant eurokris i 10 år. De måste ljuga ihop Corona så att de kan hålla medelhavsländerna under armarna. (Lockdown och recoverypaketen har överdrivits för en vanlig influensa.)

Globalisterna är mäktiga motståndare, men deras kontrollbegär har satt dem på helt fel spår.

Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992, when a collapse in the pound sterling forced Britain to withdraw from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). The U.K. was forced out of the ERM because it could not prevent the value of the pound from falling below the lower limit specified by the ERM.
Och samma för Kalle 500% ränta Bildt.
10 miljarder i fickan på Soros och middag med den svenske kungen samt tack för lektionen.

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Jag säger inte att globalisterna är korkade. Troll diskuterar IQ. De experimenterar med vad som verkar vara ett omöjligt problem. Att få olika länder att ha samma valuta. Att styra Sverige från Bryssel kan bara ske om Sverige ligger i inre konflikter.

Det är fel spår eftersom det har lett till flera valutakriser. Det leder till kaos i Sverige. Demokratin försvinner. Kolla bara kaoset. Det är fel spår.

Det är inte svenskarnas fel. När politiker och massmedia är köpta blir det bara så.

Det kopplar direkt till trådens ämne. Går detta att vända eller blir kaoset bara värre. Jag påstår att det fungerar som jag beskriver. Det är helt avgörande för trådens fråga. Att veta hur det fungerar.

Kaoset fortsätter tills dessa processer vänder. Exakt när det sker vågar jag inte säga.

(Lockdown och recoverypaketen har överdrivits för en vanlig influensa.)
Med konstant eurokris är det inte vettigt att gå in i valutan.

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Det blir inte mer fred för att Sverige och andra länder sköts från Bryssel. Tvärtom uppstår oroligheter inom länderna pga de konflikter som EU skapar. Globaliseringen tvingar bl.a politiker att genomföra massinvandring. För att underblåsa konflikter bedöms människor efter grupptillhörighet.

I EU:s hjärta, Paris slåss redan polis och brandmän med varandra på gatorna. De gula västarna gör uppror.

Övergår EU i en polisstat vilket du tror kommer motståndsgrupper och inbördeskrig att uppträda.

Att Sverige i somras tvingas skicka 200 miljarder till Sydeuropa eftersom euron misslyckats ger inte mer fred. Dessa omfördelninngar kommer att skapa oroligheter när folk får insikt i vad som sker.

Länder skall ha gott samarbete. Men EU hittar på vilka skäl som helst för att ta pengar och inflytande från enstaka länder. Du tror t.ex att detta kommer att utvecklas till en polisstst. Det måste man motverka.

Europeiska länder måste ha gott samarbete men inte styras från Bryssel.

En stor del av den krigshets vi ser i tidningarna beror på detta. Tidningarna vinklar hela tiden mot krig. Ryssarna skall invadera oss, påstår tidningarna! T.ex DN. Det stämmer inte. Man påstod t.ex nyligen att man hittat ett hål i Estoniafärjan som utretts upp och ned i 20 år. Man spekulerar i ryska ubåtar! Försvarsministern måste svara på frågor om möjlig vapensmuggling.

EU är inget fredsprojekt. Det är ett maktprojekt. Man skall ha gott samarbete men inte enligt “Låt EU bestämma allt så bestämmer de att det blir fred. Låt oss skapa en polisstat så blir allt lugnt.” Utvecklingen är redan på gång med Corona: mötesförbud, reseförbud, planerade grundlagsförändringar.

Det är inte fred som driver EU utan maktbegär över andra länder.


From sources like Wikipedia, Investopedia etc:

In the end of 1960, in the Hague (in the Netherlands), the Heads of the Member State (known as European Council today) of EC agreed to move along the road to a full economic union.[7] In 1969, the Heads of the State or Government of the Community had decided to create an economic and monetary union to complete into 1980.

The European Monetary System (EMS) was initiated in 1979, by an arrangement of the Member States of the European Economic Community (EEC)

The main objective of the EMS was to establish an Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) to reduce exchange rate variability, achieve monetary stability in Europe[1] and European Currency Unit (ECU) was introduced in that time as a weight basket of all EEC currencies

adjustment to a central rate has therefore become a matter of common interest to all participating Member States which cannot be decided by one government alone.

a grid of bilateral exchange rates. Fluctuation margins of 2.25% (6% for the Italian lira)

the central banks were compelled to support these rates indefinitely through open market operations (buying of weakened currency or selling of a strengthened currency)

EMS was succeed by the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU) which was established in 1992

Black Wednesday refers to September 16, 1992, when a collapse in the pound sterling forced Britain to withdraw from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). The U.K. was forced out of the ERM because it could not prevent the value of the pound from falling below the lower limit specified by the ERM.

… Och samma för Sverige senare på året. Hela den svenska valutareserven utplånades och de svenska hushållens köpkraft sattes ned under en tioårsperiod.

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) II is a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 1 January 1999 alongside the introduction of a single currency, the euro (replacing ERM 1 and the euro’s predecessor, the ECU)

The Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II) was formed in January 1999 to ensure exchange rate fluctuations between the Euro and other EU currencies did not disrupt economic stability in the single market. It also helped non-euro-area countries prepare to enter the euro area.

ERM ii
Most non-euro-area countries agree to keep exchange rates bound to a 15% range, up or down, against the central rate. When necessary, the European Central Bank (ECB) and other non-member countries can intervene to keep rates in the window. Some current and former members of the ERM II include Greece, Denmark, and Lithuania.
ERM ii map


European Union timeline Wiki

1992 – Maastricht Treaty formally called the Treaty on European Union – The European Union is born and Euro was introduced as the fellow currency (Denmark and the UK are not included in the EMU (European Monetary Union).

1995 – Accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden

1999 – Fraud in the Commission results in resignation

2002 – The euro replaces twelve national currencies

 

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Table of Contents (in English)

Summary 04

Summary

[keywords:
Massmedia och demokratin
News media and the democracy]

Nästa:

20.01 Bloggens uppkomst och metoder; omvärderingar

Innehållsförteckning:

20.04 (00000 links) Innehållsförteckning, ToC

 

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