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03.1.002.009 002 (006 002) antidoping, formoterol

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Astmamediciner har även muskelbyggande effekt, i synnerhet formoterol som tillsammans med steroiden budesonide ingår i Symbicort.

Therese Johaug, Marit Björgen (2012)

Vad gäller astmamedicineringen är min gissning att svenskarna och alla andra legat “efter” norrmännen. Vi försökte ta ifatt men Kalla överdoserades och det var orsaken hon fick förmaksflimmer i Ruka, gissar jag.

Vad gäller steroiderna kan man väl bara säga att det verkar troligt att många använder dem eftersom vinsterna är så stora. Provtagningen är mycket gles och utförs främst av de egna förbunden/organisationerna.

Ungefär samma gäller bloddoping.

Till det kommer att vissa har dispens för medicin med muskelbyggande effekt, som Symbicort.

ebbeholmer

Parklane:

Marit Björgen har en dispens på Symbicort och därför får hon inhalera hur mycket som helst, elefantdoser

www.svt.se/sport/artikel/anal…ationshojande/ bruten länk

svt korrigerad länk

ebbeholmer:

Marit Björgen far fram i skidspåret som en kvinnlig Mühlegg. Enligt en del inlägg här på forumet borde Marit vara nästa norska skidåkare att åka fast för doping. Jag är inte så säker på att hon riskerar att åka fast. Därmed inte sagt att hon inte dopar sig (dvs använder prestationshöjande medikamenter). Hon har som bekant dispens för medicinen Symbicort. Enligt Aftonbladet 26/2-2011

“Marit Björgens bruk av Symbicort Turbohaler väcker stark debatt. Men den medicinska expertisen är enig – den har ingen som helst prestationshöjande effekt.

– De som klagar är okunniga, säger dopningsexperten Arne Ljungqvist.”

Samma tongångar hörs från TV-experten Jonas Karlsson på SVT sport från den 13/2-2011

“Under en längre tid har det ryktats om att Marit Björgens dispens skulle gälla ett betydligt starkare ämne som heter Clenbuterol, men så är inte fallet” ” Nu handlar det om Symbicort, vilket enligt läkare jag prata med är att betrakta som ett “rent preparat”. Det finns inga prestationshöjande effekter, förutom att det normaliserar luftflödet för astmatiker.”

Ordspråket säger att som(vem) man frågar får man svar. Den aktiva substansen i Symbicort är Formoterol en Beta2 – selektiv agonist. Till att börja med kan vi fastslå att Formoterol skulle vara ett betydligt svagare ämne jämfört med Clenbuterol (som den Tyska sprintern Katrin Krabbe åkte dit för 1992 med en avstängning på 4 år trots att medlet då inte var dopingklassat) är felaktigt.

Från Neuromuscul Disord. 2007 Jan;17(1):47-55. Epub 2006 Nov 28.

The findings indicate that formoterol has considerably more powerful anabolic effects on skeletal muscle than older generation beta(2)-agonists (like clenbuterol and albuterol)

Här en annan studie som kanske förklarar varför Björgen som kvinna just valt att behandla sig med Symbicort. Studien visar att just kvinnor har en mångdubbelt högre anabol effekt av intag av Formoterol.

Metabolism. 2015 Apr;64(4):506-12. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.12.005. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

“PATIENTS:

Fifteen healthy adults (8 men).

MEASUREMENTS:

Volunteers were treated with oral formoterol 160 μg/day for one week.

“Formoterol induced an absolute anabolic effect that was greater in women (30 vs 8%). Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were unaffected.

CONCLUSION:

In a therapeutic dose, formoterol stimulates protein anabolism in humans. It induced gender-dimorphic effects on protein turnover and on the partitioning of amino acids from oxidative loss toward protein synthesis, effects that are greater in women than in men.”

Det är svårt att undgå att lägga märke till Marit Björgens tydliga vener på armarna.

Detta är hämtat från en kroppsbyggarsida där en person testar Formoterol. (2014)

-Vascularity is coming out quite nicely, and I am noticing a little toning already and veins coming out massively.

-Especially during curls, pumps are amazing.

Och här ännu en studie där man kommer fram till att den ideala dosen ligger så lågt som 160 mikrogram per dag för att undvika biverkningar och ändå få en stor effekt.

“Fat burning increases in men with oral form of bronchodilator drug, formoterol, study finds

Formoterol, a medication used to treat asthma and other lung diseases, improves fat burning and protein metabolism in men, a new study finds.

The results are being presented at The Endocrine Society’s 93rd Annual Meeting in Boston.

“Research in animals has shown that formoterol can stimulate the growth of muscle and the burning of fat. This is the first study demonstrating the beneficial metabolic effects of formoterol in humans,” said the study’s lead author Paul Lee, MD, PhD, a research fellow at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney.

The discovery is important, Lee said, because “it suggests that formoterol may be used in the future to prevent obesity and muscle loss in humans.”

With funding from the National Health Medical Research Council Australia, Lee and colleagues studied the drug in eight healthy men over one week. All men had a healthy weight and received a low daily dose of formoterol in a pill, Lee said. To find the optimal dose, the authors studied three doses in four of the men: 80, 160 or 320 micrograms per day. He said they found that the 160-microgram dose had metabolic benefits without raising heart rate.

All eight men underwent metabolic testing before and after treatment with 160 micrograms daily of formoterol. One week of formoterol treatment increased metabolism in the men by more than 10 percent, according to an estimate of the resting energy expenditure (the calories needed at rest during 24 hours). The rate of fat oxidation, or burning, rose by almost 25 percent, indicating there may be a loss of fat in the long term, Lee reported.

Additionally, the researchers determined the rate of protein burning before and after treatment.

“Protein is the building block for muscle in the body,” Lee explained. “Burning less protein means preservation of muscle and may increase muscle mass in the long term.”

After formoterol treatment the protein burning rate fell close to 15 percent, he said. They used the leucine turnover technique, which tracks the synthesis and breakdown of the amino acid leucine. According to Lee, it is the most accurate method of estimating protein metabolism in humans.

Lee said none of the volunteers reported any major side effects from the 160-microgram dose. Tachycardia, or fast heart rate, is a known side effect of older medications in the same drug class as formoterol, especially at high doses. Low dose formoterol, similar to the one used in this clinical study, resulted in no substantial adverse cardiac effects in animal studies, he said.

“Our results call for further research to investigate whether formoterol improves body composition, physical health and function,” Lee said.

source: www.sciencedaily.com/releases…0606092742.htm” bruten länk

Science daily korrigerad länk

Och slutligen för att tala klarspråk saxar jag från de verkliga experterna på doping – Kroppsbyggarna

“Friday, November 13, 2015

Formoterol – The Strongest Beta-Agonist Available that does much more than Clen

Formoterol (brand name Foradil, among others) is the strongest medically accessible beta-adrenergic agonist – it is used in medicine for Asthma. As opposed to Albuterol which is an Emergency only inhaler (generally) formoterol is used daily to treat Asthma. It’s duration of action is much longer (about 9-12 hours).

The benefit to bodybuilders, athletes and even ‘fitness enthusiasts’ is that Formoterol treatments downregulates the myostatin system; which allows for a surge of muscle growth(also see here). Myostatin inhibitors are in deep investigation (!) for muscle wasting disorders but even in normal animals and humans; myostatin inhibition causes dramatic, almost unprecedented muscle growth.

Clenbuterol does not offer this effect.

Thus, Formoterol is far superior to Clen and does not just ‘burn fat’ – rather, it has profound anabolic effects that may surpass a shit-load of other commonly used pharmaceuticals and supplements..it may even parallel steroids and is synergistic with all forms of testosterone.

FORMOTEROL comes prescribed in capsules which are loaded into an inhaler, while emptying the powder into a drink or holding it under tongue does not prove efficacious for asthma – it is the recommended mechanism of absorption for workout purposes….”

Intervallstart:

Fremdeles påstår Expressen og svensker at medisinen står på WADAs liste og at man derfor trenger TUE for å benytte astmamedisinen.

Det er over 8 år siden den ble fjernet fra listen og frigitt alle;

dagbladet.no

Inhaled salbutamol: maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours;

in divided doses not to exceed 800 micrograms over 12 hours starting from any dose;

Inhaled formoterol: maximum delivered dose of 54 micrograms over 24 hours;

Inhaled salmeterol: maximum 200 micrograms over 24 hours.

The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 40 ng/mL is not consistent with therapeutic use of the substance.

Det verkar stämma att man får använda det i viss dos. Vad jag förstår kommer då en dispens att påverka dosen? Den som har dispens får använda obegränsad mängd?

Inhaled formoterol: maximum delivered dose of 54 micrograms over 24 hours;

usada

Jag hinner inte kolla mer just nu. Skall försöka kolla mer senare.

Men påstår du att alla andra åkare haft samma möjlighet som Björgen eller andra som haft dispens, att använda Symbicort i samma doser, sedan 2011?

As of 2018, there are three inhaled beta-2 agonists that are permitted under a certain dose:

Inhaled albuterol (also called salbutamol): maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours in divided doses, not to exceed 800 micrograms over 12 hours starting from any dose;

Inhaled formoterol: maximum delivered dose of 54 micrograms over 24 hours;

Inhaled salmeterol: maximum 200 micrograms over 24 hours

All other beta-2 agonists, regardless of route of administration, are prohibited at all times and at all dosages!

USADA

Här beskrivs hacket som ryska Fancy Bear gjorde av WADA.

Venus approved for the following substances from 2010-2014: prednisone, prednisolone, triamcinolone and the generic form of the asthma inhaler symbicort.

tennis.com

(Stackars sjuklingen Venus verkar också ha fått Sjögrens syndrom. Båda systrarna använder steroider.)

The Guardian

tennis.com

Det verkar som om man delar ut TUE för Symbicort och motsvarande åtminstone fram till 2014? Vad är meningen med det om reglerna är lika för alla, vad gäller det preparatet?

Enligt denna krävs TUE för doser >54 ug/24hrs, år 2013.

imgur

wada-ama.org

2011 blev det fritt för alla att använda formoterol. Dock i doser <54 ug/24hrs. Verdens Gang beskriver detta men glömmer att berätta att vissa, t.ex Björgen och Venus Willians har dispens för högre doser.

Det finns gränser i urinen. Men det är mycket möjligt att om någon ertappas så kan den hävda att gränserna inte gäller om den har TUE.


Mer om Björgen, politiska aspekter.


 

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Table of Contents (in English)

Summary 04

Summary

[keywords:
Massmedia och demokratin
News media and the democracy]

Nästa:

03.1.002.009 003 sport imports

 

Innehållsförteckning:

20.04 (00000 links) Innehållsförteckning, ToC

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